Stephano Sotiriou



1.1          PREHISTORY

 According to mythology, Sicily’s first habitant was  the God  Kronos (Saturn in Latin), the father  of ZeusHe  died in the island, after the horrible “Titanomahia”, that brought his son Zeus (Jupiter) in the throne of Gods. In the  mountain of S.Calogero, north west of Agrigento, is found  the  grave of Kronos, well known asCronion. (Klimis from Alexandria, “against Greeks”, p-30).

 (In Greek, and according to Plato-book “kratylos”- the word mythology means the real –ancient history.  “ Mythology is a science, written with codes…”. So that’s why the Greek has another word for the fairy tails. The Paramythi, and Para mythology). 

As first residents of Sicily and N. Italy  were reported by all the ancient writers, (Greeks and Roman writers), the Greeks.

Beginning from the prehistory, very before the 3.000 b.C. and as it is reported in the ancient manuscripts "Nostoi"and "Tilegoneia" the first human,  the fabulousITALOS, son of  Tilegonos and Pennelope, grandson of  Oinotros,  was arrived,  in a small peninsula, in  the southern coast of  the Apennine mountains, that were named Vrettia (today  Calabria = good breeze). The  Italos was the first resident and at the same time the first Greek that was inaugurate in the Apennine peninsula,  which  later  receives her name from this fabulous Greek settlement.  (Italos in the Aeolian dialect mean  the owner of good and  many Cows. Italo=Ox,Cow, Tavros,Vetuli, Italo…). (Hesyhios from Alexandria, lexicon of archaic Greek Dialects).

When the  Italian and the other  Greeks  who came with him (The Pelasgians), arrived in this peninsula, established a state, the “state of  Oinotri” and he became  the  king of Pelasgian people of Oinotri, (Virgil Aineias, A-530).

The VRETTIA,  was an ancient Greek  Goddess, a  Nymph who   was emigrate in the place called Vrettia, current Calabria, from the Mysia, region   of  Asia Minor (Eleyceroydakis encyclopedical lexicon). The  Vrettioi inaugurated in the same place where was inaugurate the Italian itself and give their name to the region, until it is renamed in the medieval ages, to Calabria.

According to mythology,  Vrettos was son of Herakles and Valite, daughter of Valitos. (Stefanos Byzantios, lexikon…).The Vrettioi  was also Greeks and Greek speaking  population and the many currencies excavations, in the current Calabria, do not leave absolutely no one drought, that, everything  is written in  the mythology for  them, is the truth ,  and  absolutely  real history

The KALAVRIA.In the Peloponiso,  in the small peninsula of  Trizina, exist  a green  island by name kalavria. The current Kalavria was  created at the tertiary period  (11millions years ago). 

In the era ofthe kings  Anthas and Yperis (1250 b.C), was named Yperi or Ypereia, and also  Skelerdeia,       (that means  SKELIA>SIKELIA( sicily)!!! 

The name   Kalavria or Kalariei or Kalavrea, was an oldest name a lot of years before the 1250 b.C. This name perhaps  is taken from the "good breeze" which is always present in  the Saronikos golf, or from the  Kalavro or Kalavrian, who was son of Poseidon (Neptune in Latin), and as  testify various elements he was the grandson of the   Arcadian and the    Leanere, who lived in the region since  1290 b.C.

An other mythological  source says that the   Calabrian was son of  Evrymedis, and grandson of  Aganos - all descendants of  Pelasgos. It appears, therefore, that the Arcadians came in the region around  the 1290 b.C. not as conquerors but as settlements.


 When  the two brothers from Arcadia,  Pittheas  and Troizinios, arrived in the region,  Pittheas  penetrate in the peninsula Trizinia  and became   king of the city of Anthea.

Antheas,  the  fallen king of Anthea-  and his son   Aetios,  were forced to leave  the Troizinia and escape to Asia Minor  where,  with some other people,  found the  city of Halikarnassos (The birthplace of Herodotos).

 After   Anthea, Pittheas  occupies and the other city, the Ypereia.  Then,    Yperis, the  fallen king  of Ypereiawas forced with other Kalavrians and Achaeans to escape  in the south  Italy.

He established first the city HYPERIA in Sicily, and after that  penetrate  in to Calabria

By them, the  entire region was named CALABRIA. KALAVRIA  at this times was the current Apulia (about 1250 b.c.). Later, they  found also the city Poseidonia in the Kalavria (Medieval-Byzantine- and current,  region of “Vasilicata”). In the same Italian region today, exists also a mountain with the name Poros (Poros is  the current name of  a small city, next to ancient Hypereia in the Peloponessian Kalavria).

          When  precisely was  resided  the Peloponesian Kalavria it is not been ascertained. In any case excavations who started in 1894, brought in the light elements that testify that begins  at the Neolithic period. In 2002 the Kokoreli  excavations, came to testify everything that adds new positive elements.

The fabulusKalavros (Calabrian)  is also reported  as son of Zeus, while as son of Neptune the  Messapios, who moved in southern Italy from the Island Eubea and Beotia, where exist until nowdays the Mountain “Messapion”, the river “Messapios” in Eubea, and the citi of “Messapion” .


 Nonos the Panopolitis, (from the Panopolis of Egypt), who wrote the history of God  Dionyssos in 40 volumes and report us for prehistorically elements, (before the 3.000 b.C.) it reports how: after the flood of  Deykalion,  restorer   of  human life in Sicily was   Elymos (Elymoi of Egetsa), in the N. Italy the  Ahatis, while in Athens   Amfiktyon, brother of Greek ( Hellinas) and son of  Deykalion (Nonos A, 150).

Pafsanias  reports how the Oinotos, grandson of    Defkalion and son of  Lykaon of  Arkadia, left with boats from his homeland in Greece, and arrived in Apennine and the country that put under his control named  OinotriaGrandson of Oinotros was the fabulius Italian  (Pafsanias. Arcadica, 3). 

 MESSAPIOI  were Pelasgians who came from the Peloponisos, Eubea and Beotia to. The Peloponesos had another name at this years. It  was called Apia . (Messapia = the country that laid  between two Seas, or two rivers). In Greece  exist today a lot of  toponymes and hydronymes with this name. The Messapion Mountain,  in the borders of  Chalcis-Viotia (70 km  north of Athens), the Messapios river that springs from mountain Dirfys of Eubea and another  Messapios river in the western Crete, near the village Lappa. Certainly the Messapians spoke  100% a Greek language, element that confirm all, without exception, the excavations and the  stone scripts. 

And  IAPYGAS, the patriarh of the  IAPYGES  was Greek. The name   Iapyx, means "the shizononozefyros" (N.- NW. wind) (Aristotel.973v, 14- lexicon Dimitrakou)

Together with the Oinotros, settlement  in Italy was and his brother   PEUKETIOS (Pefketios),patriarh of  the Pefketians which found colonies in southern regions the Apoulia, in the  PEFKETIA (Pefko means The Pino tree)(Pafsanias, 4 tom, 3,5- Dionysios Alikaranseus A, 11- Apollodoros from Rodos, G, 97).


In the same time, another settlement came in the south  Apenine peninsula and  he was  LEUKOS (White- lux-Λυκ-αυγές- Λυκ-ο-φως) son of  Talos, the cupreous giant who  has guarded the island of  Crete, who was killed by the  Argonauts.  Leukos, after the death of his father, reversed the king of Knosos   Idomeneas  and killed his daughter. Idomeneas was forced to leave Crete and  escape to  the south  Italy  in order to save his life.

 And  Leukos however was forced to follow the street of Idomeneas after while. The destructions that he made in Crete caused general dissatisfaction, so he must also to escape in Italy were established  a kingdom, and became   king in the region   with the name   LEUKANIA (Lefkania- Loukania today).

In the sea  side of Leukania use to live also the  people  of AUSONES    (Afsones). Their patriarch  was the   Ausonas, whowas son of  Odysseus  and  Kalypso, or  from other source, son of  Atlas and  Kirki

And with all them  in  south Italy lived also the  DAUNOS People. Patriarch  of   DAUNOS ( Davnos) was the Daunos, son of  the King of Arcadia  Lykaonas.

Diomidis, one of the Trojan warriors, after his return from  Troy, left his unfaithful woman   Aigialeia (Egialia) and  arrived in the  Daunia, where, support  the  Daunos with   his  military and received as return a part of Davnos country, to the north,  and a daughter of Davnos as wife .






“In the Peloponiso,  in the small peninsula of  Trizina, exist  a green  island by name kalavria. The current Kalavria was  created at the tertiary period  (11 millions years ago).

  In the era of kingsAnthas and Yperis (1250 b.C), was named Yperi or Ypereia, and also  Skelerdeia,    (that means  SKELIA>SIKELIA >  sicily)…

The ancient  historian, Nonos the Panopolitis, (from the Panopolis of Egypt),who wrote the history of God  Dionysos in 40 volumes and is reported in prehistory  (before the 3.000 b.C.) it reports how: after the flood of  Defkalion, the restorer of human existence in Sicily was the  Elymos (Elymoi of Aigesta- Egesta),  and in the S. Italy was the  Ahatis,  while in Athens was the  Amfiktyon, brother of Greek ( Hellinas) and son of  Defkalion (Nonos A, 150).


In Sicily now, historical and no mythologjkal, as first residents, with the significance of compact race, are reported the   Cretans  “Sikanoi”, who gave and their name in the island, initially as Sikania and afterwards as Sikelia (sicily). It appears that prehistorical reside  in Sicily with Cretans and other races from Aegean sea, was continuous in long-lasting and possibly it begins also from 10.000 years b.C., when began the naval activity of Minoan Cretans, as  revealed the archaeological discoveries  from ser Arthur Evans in Crete, which confirm also the   Plato  and the other ancient writers, who reports   the flood       (kataklysmos) of Defaliona and the Atlantida  (Plato,  Timaios and Kritias). 


In the Dictionary of Hesyhios (Dictionary of ancient Greek Dialects, that contains the ancient types of Greek words),the world Sika-nos, became from the Sika=Lakonas, or the resident of Lakedaimonia, from the word Sika, that means sword, - handnife.  “Xifiris, xifoforoi Lakones… »  (The capital of Laconia was the Sparta)

SIKANOSking of the  Sikanian tribewas the son of Vriareos,  who was father of Cyclops  and   Aitna (Etna). The  Sikanos himself had three sons. The  Cyklops, the  Antifanis and the Polyfimos.

 Aitna  was  a nymph of Sicily, doughter of Ouranos  (Sky)and   Geas (Earth). Ouranos wasbrother of  Kronos (Saturn),  who is reported as first resident of Sicily, where is laid also his grave. When the God Ifaistos (Hefestos-god of Fire and Iron- Vulcan) and  Dimitra (Ceres)has a strong disagree for who will become protector of the island,   Aitna  intervened as arbitrator. Thus,  Ifaistos took only the volcanos (Etna and Stromboli), where  made his laboratory, while Dimitra  (that she symbolizes the big granary of Sicily) became protector of the  island!

Dimitra:   The Goddess protector of Sicily. Her name is compound word from the Da-miter, emanates from the Aeolian dialect (by which it will be created thousands years later the Latin language) and means "Mother Eatrth".  (For this reason  we  believe that the Temple in the Egesta,  was a temple in Honor of Goddess Dimitra- Mother Earth). As report to us the Homeric epos “Odysseia”, Isiodos (Hesiodos) and  Diodoros the Sikeliotis, the daughter of Goddess Dimitra, the  Persephone,  used to play  with her friends, the Nymphs in the region of the cityEnna  (center of Sicily).

 Suddenly she  saw a wonderful  flower, narcissus, and she wanted it  to  cuts. This was however the trap that the God Pluto, god of the underground World, made to catch her.

 Since then in the place of Persephoni’s kidnapping,  exist a source of water, which was named "Cyani”(Azure).  The Goddess Dimitra waited for 9 days the return of Persephone and then she began to look for her. And searching, she reached  in the Elefsina… where she established also the eminent “Elefsinian  Mysteries”.

The theory that in 10th cent.b.C. was inuagurate, coming from the northern Italy, a  new race,  a tribe of the Illyrian nation, called Sikeloi, is not valid, because it is not proved with no way. In order to be supported this opinion it should:

a) Exist written sources that would report the existence of this race.

b) Material archaeological discoveries, which will  show to us where this supposed tribe lived before, when, how and where was moved.

In deficiency of any material proof it is certain that the name Sicily  became:

*Or from the Peloponessian  Skelia, place  from where are emigrated  to Italy the  Kalavrian Skeloi or Kalavroi, to current Southern Italy and Sicily, or from corruption of the word   Sikania.

*Or from  this residents who were called  himself  “Skeloi” (Sikeloi'),  because use to live in the two bangs of the narrow canal,  the Scylla’s and the Hayrides (Messini and Righion- Reggio).

*Or still because in Sicily, who was the granary of Italian Peninsula, and was the island under  protection and residence also of Goddess of  granaries .

(Sikalis = RYE is a kind of granary – cereal,  more ancient than the wheat and in  the prehistorical and historical era was the basical culture in the Sicily ).

c) Etymological analysis of the original  name “Sikelia”, that would confirm the any, not Greek, ethnological origin of the word and the  Sicilians.


d) Some autochthon mythological traditions, with gods and heroes. Because it is impossible, to except as normal think the thesis   that, the Sicilians are not  Greek origin population, and from the other side, to  have as gods and heroes only the Greeks. The Cretan Minos,  Herakles,  Hefestos, Dimitra, Persephone, Aitna (Etna),  Ortygia,  Kronos (Saturn),  Daidalos (Dedalus),   Rea… and so many others.

e)  Beyond the report and archaeological excavation, the  written historical and mythological sources, we found the most serious existence of a very ancient evidence in Athens.  The hill “Sicily”:   "Ekeito de outos ou' poro tou asteos kai den ito megas" (It  was  very near to the city and was not so big). The German archaeologist Lollig believed that the hill  Sicily  is the current  hill of  Filopappos, but his locality however is the hill of old slaughterhouses, in the left bank of river  Ilyssos  in the borders  between the suburbs Neos Cosmos and kallithea. Today there is the stadium of “Esperos” and the Panteion University. This hill  was called Sicily many centuries before the archaic Greek  (8th century b.c.) colonization in the  island.  So it is very strange  the existence    of this name in Athena, centuries before the Athenians colonized the  Sicily.

(Trinakria is the  other  Greek name, who give  the geographic   description of the island. The three akres (ends) This name was well known  from the Cycladic era, about 3.000 b.C.)

*The Archaic Greek colonization in 8thcentury b.C. was the forth (4) Greek colonization.

 First was from the Minoan Cretans, long before 2000 b.C. In Heraclea Minoa in Sicily, city from 1.600 b.C., exist the Grave of King Minos!

Secondwas from the Pelasgian and Achaean tribes from Peloponesus, Beotia , Aitolia and Epirus, about 1500-1300 b.c.

Thirdwas after the fall of Troy,  from the Aeolians, (Etruscans - Tyrenians and other Greek speaking tribes, from the  Asia Minor and the Islands Lemnos, Lesvos, Tenedos, Imvros and oth.)

Forth: When the Athenians, the Chakideans, the Spartans…, arrived in Sicily and south Sicily, in the 8thcentury b/C., found there an oldest Greek population. They found  and  Mycenaean and Minoan  cities like Thapsos  in Sicily, the island Castiglione  in the golf of Napoli, the Valle di  San Montano  in Pithicouses islands, the Scoglio del tonno   east of Tarantas, the  Punta delle terrare north of Otranto  (Hydrounta), the   Torre Casteluccia  in  kallipoli, the Agripina, the  Hippion Argos, and many other Minoan and Mycenaean cities, who are under archeological excavation today.

*The  Phoenicians had not colonies in Sicily, but only commercial stations   (Colony is a city with various population and not only solders, institutions, like temples, parliament, stadiums, hippodromes, schools and oth.). So the most known commercial station of the Phoenician, was the “Ziz”, near the Greek city of  Panormos (Palermo).



 st)  In the documents  of city Ougarit of Fenicia  (Lebanon), that is constituted by plinth (brick) plates, was found a letter of her last king, the  Ampourapi,  to the king of Alasia  (Cyprus), in which he describes the invasion that got his city in 1185 b.C. from the "Populations of the Aegean", which he calls collective as “federation of   Sikelagia” (in the Pelasgian greek: "those who live in  the “Kila” = “concave”, that is to say boats) and names also as members of their Federation the   Danye'n (Danaou's=Achaean’s), the  Filistines, the Sikelagia and other(Israel Finkelstain, Archaeology and old testament p.46).

 In the Aigyptian temples (hieroglyfik letters) also this population is named Sekele's. They belongs  to “people of the sea”, who attack the Egypt and destroy the dynasty of Faraon at the 12 century, with their Danye'n (Danaou's), Serden (Sardinous, or more probably Sardeious, that is to say Lydous, from the Asia Minor coasts), the Peleset from Crete (Filistaious- later Palestinians), the Loukka (Lykeious from Asia Minor) and the Teres (Etrouskans from the island of Lemnos- in front of Troia).

We cannot therefore all these to take as accidental or non exist.


*The territory of Sicily and S.Italy was (particularly) under Greek control,   (Byzantine) until the 12th century, when the Greek feudarh  Melos, of Varis (Bari), called the Normandians as mercenary’s,to help him to be independent from Constandinopolis.

*The Greek language dominate  in the territory until the 13 century (The Lows of  the German King (conqueror)  of Tow Sicily’s, Frederic II, was written in Greek, to be understandable of the population, and in (scholar for the Lows) Latin (The original text -is in my position- published in Germany from  the Thea Von Liebeck, Leipzig library 1977).The Petrarh came to Reggio to learn Greek, and the Englishman, humanist,  Roger Bacon in his  famous letter to  Pop (1280), wrote that in Sicily the most places are still, compactly, Greek speaking!

*After the  Synod’s of Messina (1520) and Otranro,  (1580) the Sicilians, Calabrians, Apoulians …  were forced to leave the Orthodox Cristianity. More than  1300 churches and monasteries, were forced to  close or, to change language in their ceremonies. The Greeks became Roman Catholics, so, the Sicilians-Calabrians…   lost the language and their heritage.

*In 1821, the  French Bourbons, rulers of the South Italy, closed the last 16  Greek monasteries in Caldaria and Apulia.

 *In 1932, the German glossolog – linguist, Gerhard Rholfs,publish his research in four Books by the titles:

a) The Hellenism in Sicily, b) The Hellenism in Caldaria, c) The Greek toponymes 4) Etymology of toponymes, name’s and of the surnames.

The Mussolini’s regime in Rome, react imminently and very strong. The books were prohibited, and the Greek speaking population from Sicily, Caldaria, Apoulia and Tsilento region of Napoli,  regretted  and  send it in the  war Fronts, in the first line.

*The most Famous Greek  of current Sicily was the Luiggi Piradelo.

 “… I do care the Hellas in my mine. Her spirit is  consolationιand  lighthouse for my soul. I am from Sicily, in other words from Greater Greece and there still exists a lot Hellas in Sicily. The measure, the harmony and the rhythm lives on her. I am of the same Hellenic heritage, even if from another place. Yes, yes don't be surprised. My family name is Pirangellos. The Pirandello is the phonetic alteration of it, Pirangello-Pirandello…”

Luigi Piradelo to Costas OuranisThe whole interview in the magazine “Nea Estia”, No 191, December 1934 , Costas Ouranis Foundation, Plaka , Athenes Greece.



*Today, the Greeks are still presents in Sicily, with churches in all cities in eastern coast, with a monastery in Catania (mantranici), and  a  cultural center, and the biggest center for Hellenic studies in the world, in Palermo (Panormos).

In Calabria, Apulia and Vasilikata, where the wave of Greek renaissance is more dynamic, the Greek dialects “Griko”, and “Grekanika”, are still alive and have the support of the Italian government and the E.U.



Stephano Sotiriou, Historian,  Email:



Greek cities in 5th century B.C.

In the 4th century b/C. the Greek population in Magna Grecia was about 13-15 million!